Class MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

  • All Implemented Interfaces:
    Splittable<TrackableSearch<BitVector>>, Metaheuristic<BitVector>, ReoptimizableMetaheuristic<BitVector>, TrackableSearch<BitVector>

    public final class MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm
    extends GenerationalMutationOnlyEvolutionaryAlgorithm<BitVector>

    This class is an implementation of a mutation-only genetic algorithm (GA) with the common bit vector representation of solutions to optimization problems, and the generational model where children replace their parents each generation. It uses the usual bit flip mutation, where each bit of each member of the population is mutated (flipped) with some probability, known as the mutation rate, each generation. The selection operator is configurable. This MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm class can also be configured with or without the use of elitism. With elitism, a specified number of the most fit members of the population survive into the next generation unaltered.

    The library also includes other classes for evolutionary algorithms that may be more relevant depending upon your use-case. For example, see the SimpleGeneticAlgorithm class for the form of GA known as the Simple GA, the GeneticAlgorithm class if you want to use both mutation and crossover, and the GenerationalEvolutionaryAlgorithm and GenerationalMutationOnlyEvolutionaryAlgorithm classes if you want to optimize something other than BitVectors or if you want even greater flexibility in configuring your evolutionary search.

    • Constructor Detail

      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            Initializer<BitVector> initializer,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        initializer - An initializer for generating random initial population members.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        NullPointerException - if any of initializer, f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            ProgressTracker<BitVector> tracker)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        tracker - A ProgressTracker.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, selection, or tracker are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection,
                                            int eliteCount)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        eliteCount - The number of elite population members. Pass 0 for no elitism. eliteCount must be less than n.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        IllegalArgumentException - if eliteCount is greater than or equal to n.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Double<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type double, the FitnessFunction.Double interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, or selection are null.
      • MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm​(int n,
                                            int bitLength,
                                            FitnessFunction.Integer<BitVector> f,
                                            double mutationRate,
                                            SelectionOperator selection)

        Initializes a mutation-only genetic algorithm with a generational model where children replace the parents, using the standard bit flip mutation. All other characteristics, such as selection operator are configurable. This constructor supports fitness functions with fitnesses of type int, the FitnessFunction.Integer interface.

        Parameters:
        n - The population size.
        bitLength - The length of each bit vector.
        f - The fitness function.
        mutationRate - The per-bit probability of flipping a bit. Each bit of each member of the population is flipped with this probability, and the decisions to flip bits are independent.
        selection - The selection operator.
        Throws:
        IllegalArgumentException - if n is less than 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if mutationRate ≤ 0 or if mutationRate ≥ 1.
        IllegalArgumentException - if bitLength is negative.
        NullPointerException - if any of f, or selection are null.
    • Method Detail

      • split

        public MutationOnlyGeneticAlgorithm split()
        Description copied from interface: Splittable
        Generates a functionally identical copy of this object, for use in multithreaded implementations of search algorithms. The state of the object that is returned may or may not be identical to that of the original. Thus, this is a distinct concept from the functionality of the Copyable interface. Classes that implement this interface must ensure that the object returned performs the same functionality, and that it does not share any state data that would be either unsafe or inefficient for concurrent access by multiple threads. The split method is allowed to simply return the this reference, provided that it is both safe and efficient for multiple threads to share a single copy of the Splittable object. The intention is to provide a multithreaded search with the capability to provide spawned threads with their own distinct search operators. Such multithreaded algorithms can call the split method for each thread it spawns to generate a functionally identical copy of the operator, but with independent state.
        Specified by:
        split in interface Metaheuristic<BitVector>
        Specified by:
        split in interface ReoptimizableMetaheuristic<BitVector>
        Specified by:
        split in interface Splittable<TrackableSearch<BitVector>>
        Overrides:
        split in class GenerationalMutationOnlyEvolutionaryAlgorithm<BitVector>
        Returns:
        A functionally identical copy of the object, or a reference to this if it is both safe and efficient for multiple threads to share a single instance of this Splittable object.
      • optimize

        public final SolutionCostPair<T> optimize​(int numGenerations)
        Runs the evolutionary algorithm beginning from a randomly generated population. If this method is called multiple times, each call begins at a new randomly generated population.
        Specified by:
        optimize in interface Metaheuristic<T extends Copyable<T>>
        Parameters:
        numGenerations - The number of generations to run.
        Returns:
        The best solution found during this set of generations, which may or may not be the same as the solution contained in the ProgressTracker, which contains the best across all calls to optimize as well as ReoptimizableMetaheuristic.reoptimize(int). Returns null if the run did not execute, such as if the ProgressTracker already contains the theoretical best solution.
      • getProgressTracker

        public final ProgressTracker<T> getProgressTracker()
        Description copied from interface: TrackableSearch
        Gets the ProgressTracker object that is in use for tracking search progress. The object returned by this method contains the best solution found during the search (including across multiple concurrent runs if the search is multithreaded, or across multiple restarts if the run methods were called multiple times), as well as cost of that solution, among other information. See the ProgressTracker documentation for more information about the search data tracked by this object.
        Specified by:
        getProgressTracker in interface TrackableSearch<T extends Copyable<T>>
        Returns:
        the ProgressTracker in use by this metaheuristic.
      • setProgressTracker

        public final void setProgressTracker​(ProgressTracker<T> tracker)
        Description copied from interface: TrackableSearch
        Sets the ProgressTracker object that is in use for tracking search progress. Any previously set ProgressTracker is replaced by this one.
        Specified by:
        setProgressTracker in interface TrackableSearch<T extends Copyable<T>>
        Parameters:
        tracker - The new ProgressTracker to set. The tracker must not be null. This method does nothing if tracker is null.
      • getProblem

        public final Problem<T> getProblem()
        Description copied from interface: TrackableSearch
        Gets a reference to the problem that this search is solving.
        Specified by:
        getProblem in interface TrackableSearch<T extends Copyable<T>>
        Returns:
        a reference to the problem.